The Group of Neurodegenerative Diseases at IDIVAL reveals factors that may influence early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease

Previous hypertension, diabetes and renal insufficiency could alter plasma markers

A multidisciplinary research team belonging to the Neurodegenerative Diseases Group of IDIVAL and the Cognitive Impairment Unit of the Neurology Service of the Marqués de Valdecilla University Hospital (HUMV) has conducted a study aimed at understanding how different physiological variables and previous diseases could influence the early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. The Clinical Analysis and Biochemistry Service and the Immunology Service of the HUMV have also collaborated in the research.

The research was carried out on 208 cognitively healthy volunteers from the Valdecilla Cohort by analyzing different markers in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid. This procedure is a simple, reliable and minimally invasive way to identify variables prior to observing the first memory failures characteristic of the disease.

The markers are two proteins called β-amyloid (forms β-40 and β-42), the ratio between them that biologically defines the disease and, finally, the protein called phosphorylated tau (p-tau181). In addition, these markers have been related to multiple variables such as blood pressure, liver enzymes, renal filtration or different cardiovascular risk factors.

Likewise, prior diagnosis of hypertension and diabetes may also have an effect on plasma amyloid and tau protein levels.

The aim is to understand the dynamics of plasma markers in the preclinical stages of Alzheimer’s disease with the intention of using them in the future as a population screening tool and to be able to look for preventive treatments. This is especially important now that the first disease-modifying drugs are in the process of being approved in Europe.

The study has been published in the prestigious International Journal of Molecular Sciences.

Reference: Martínez-Dubarbie, F.; Guerra-Ruiz, A.; López-García, S.; Irure-Ventura, J.; Lage, C.; Fernández-Matarrubia, M.; Pozueta-Cantudo, A.; García-Martínez, M.; Corrales-Pardo, A.; Bravo, M.; et al. Influence of Physiological Variables and Comorbidities on Plasma Aβ40, Aβ42, and p-tau181 Levels in Cognitively Unimpaired IndividualsInt. J. Mol. Sci. 202425, 1481.